Pharmaceutical and Generic Engineering firms are searching for Microbiologist. If you are in U.S and are in need of the best school that provides the best education for those who wanted to become a Microbiologist, the top 4 includes Harvard University, Stanford, University of California—Berkeley, and University of Wisconsin—Madison. These top 4 Universities are considered to be the best option to provide the best possible education for you.
Cell Biology and Microbiology are almost simultaneous with each other every time we hear of these two disciplines. Somehow, there is a difference between the two as Cell Biology deals with the Cells in the human body, animals, plants and other living organisms while the Microbiology are for those that deals with microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria.
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Ohio State Offers Training In Virtually Every Aspect Of Modern Microbiology
Our Ph.D. program in microbiology offers an individualized approach to graduate study in one of the nation’s largest teaching and research institutions. You will actively participate in planning your graduate program, working with colleagues from around the world while pursuing your Ph.D. degree.
Upon entering our graduate program, you will do five-week rotations in three laboratories of your choice. These rotations will expose you to a variety of researchers, their laboratories, and their specializations and should enable you to select an adviser who best suits your interests. Once you have selected your dissertation adviser — generally after about six months — you will work with your Ph.D. adviser to design a curriculum that complements your research project.
You will select courses from a broad spectrum of microbiology, including microbial genetics and physiology, immunology, fermentation technology, pathogenic microbiology, and environmental microbiology. You can also enroll in a variety of courses offered by related departments such as biochemistry, molecular genetics, and chemistry.
Your course work will be supplemented by participation in informal laboratory group meetings, journal clubs, and our departmental seminar series that features prominent research scientists at academic and industrial laboratories from Ohio State University and around the world. You will have the opportunity to meet with these scientists and discuss your research projects with them.
To help you develop communication skills, we offer a seminar series that gives you practice in presenting your work before a friendly audience. Each microbiology graduate student has several opportunities to present research papers at national or international meetings during his or her graduate career. Annual research competitions give you the opportunity to present your research to a wider audience and to compete for awards that honor the best presentations.
Graduate Admissions & Aid
Please Note: It is now past the application deadline for Autumn 2009
If you have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in any of the biological sciences, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, engineering, or chemistry, you should apply directly to our Ph.D. program. The OSU Microbiology Graduate Program focuses on Ph.D. candidates, for whom full financial support is provided. Applicants to the M.S. program are less frequently admitted as financial aid cannot be guaranteed. In order to ensure full consideration, all applicants are strongly encouraged to have a completed application on file by December 31st. The university’s official application deadline for Autumn 2009 admission is January 15th. All supplemental application materials must be received by this date in order to participate in our regular on-campus interview process. You must submit results of the GRE general examination as part of your application. All international applicants whose native language is not English and who have not previously earned a U.S. degree must also pass the TOEFL examination. Visit the OSU Admissions Officeweb site for more information.
If you need additional information, call us at (614) 292-2301, send us a request by Fax at (614) 292-8120, or write:
Graduate Studies Chair
Department of Microbiology
The Ohio State University
484 West 12th Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1292
You may also request additional information by email from the Graduate Program Coordinator at firstname.lastname@example.org.
After we receive your completed application, we will make an admission decision and inform you of our decision in writing as soon as possible. Information about financial support will be included in the letter of admission.
In keeping with Ohio State’s commitment to affirmative action, the Department of Microbiology welcomes applications from members of underrepresented groups and encourages all applicants to visit our campus, tour our facilities, and meet with faculty and students in the program. Arrange to visit by calling our office.
We Guarantee Financial Aid
All qualified Ph.D. students are guaranteed financial support throughout their graduate program provided they remain in good academic standing and below 260 credit hours. We offer year-round support in the form of graduate associateships or fellowships. We also offer a variety of enrichment student fellowships. To apply for any of the fellowship opportunities, you must have a completed application on file by December 31st.
Graduate Teaching Associates (GTAs) spend no more than 20 hours each week teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in microbiology and biology. After one year as a Teaching Associate, there will be opportunities to become a Research Associate supported by a faculty member’s research grant while you complete your dissertation research.
Active links indicate faculty members who are currently accepting
Pravin T. P. Kaumaya
Peptide and Protein Design, Antigenic and Immunogenic Determinants, Peptide & Protein Folding.
Research efforts in my laboratory are primarily based on exploiting the immune system’s exquisite specificity which offers one of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent and control disease. To achieve our goals a multidisciplinary research approach is being pursued which is at the interface of chemistry and biology with special emphasis on modulation of the immune response. We have and are continuing to develop innovative approaches to antigen specific vaccination as well as developing immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we are actively pursuing an interdisciplinary approach to testing a novel multi-epitope cancer vaccine that bridges the synthetic, preclinical, and clinical elements of vaccine development. Several long term objectives include: 1) developing a widely applicable vaccine targeting the HER-2 oncoprotein (breast/ovarian/tumor/cancer vaccine and to gain understanding of immune response to self peptides in normal and pathologic conditions, 2) developing a widely applicable blockade strategy targeting costimulatory molecules (CD28:B7, CD40:CD40L) and also to elucidate the underlining mechanisms in downregulating immune responses as well as to gain understanding the biological active conformation of these peptide mimics and how they interact with the costimulatory molecules, 3) developing a B cell and T-cell vaccine for the retrovirus – HTLV-I (the causative agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia).
For peptide vaccines to become a practical reality, rationally designed, highly engineered synthetic constructs must incorporate enough antigenic determinants to elicit all three arms of the immune system. Novel vaccines designed to stimulate both antibody and T cell responses against human tumors are urgently required. It is critical to identify general rules for the definition of immunogenicity so that vaccine optimization is rational rather than empirical. Identification of the biologically relevant epitopes, devising strategies to engineer conformationally dependent sequences¸ adopting ways to increase the immunogenicity in an outbred population, delivering the immunogen in a safe and efficacious vehicle, developing animal models are at the basis of our approaches to developing new anticancer and retroviral vaccines. With these factors in mind, we have developed strategies for the design of PEPTIDE VACCINES that can provide optimal B cell, T helper cell and cytotoxic T cell responses. Our approach for the design of peptide vaccines with improved binding affinities, titers, and enhanced immunity a priori relies on the engineering of structured peptides which mimic antibody recognition sites and approaches to bypass MHC “restriction” of the T cell response. The immune responses (B-cell and T cell) to these peptides are then extensively studied to correlate biological or immunological reactivity with structure. This process of design, synthesis, structural characterization and immunological testing may point to a general strategy for tailoring peptide vaccines with more useful antigenic and immunogenic characteristics. Empirical and computational approaches are applied to the engineering and synthesis of complex peptide sequences designed to adopt well defined -secondary and three dimensional structures. A variety of biophysical techniques (CD, FTIR, SAXS, NMR, MS and X-Ray crystallography) are used to extensively characterize the chemical and structural properties of the synthetic peptides.
On the other spectrum of our research goals, overwhelming experimental evidence has emerged in recent years concerning the impact of costimulatory signals for complete T cell activation and has allowed investigators to develop new strategies for immune intervention, both for suppression of the immune system and for stimulation of the immune system. Attempts to block T cell costimulation as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmunity and transplantation have gained tremendous momentum. We are developing novel immunotherapeutic strategies that take advantage of normal mechanisms of tolerance to self antigen for immune intervention both for suppression of the immune system (autoimmune diseases (Multiple Sclerosis) and transplantation) and for stimulation of the immune system (vaccines). Our focus has been directed towards developing novel peptide mimics of ligand-binding regions of several costimulatory molecules (CD28:B7 and CD40:CD40L) in an attempt to block T cell costimulation pathways by use of retro-inverso (RI) modification of peptides that preserves the parent peptide overall topology and provides at the same time stability to proteolysis, leading to derivatives with prolonged half-life in vitro and in vivo. Blocking T cell costimulation as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmunity and transplantation is a major thrust in our laboratories.
Kaumaya, P.T.P., Berndt, K., Heindorn, D., Trewhella, J., Kezdy, F.J. and Goldberg, E. (1990) Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of Topographic Immunogenic Determinants with aa Topologies. Biochemistry, 29,13-23.
Kaumaya, P.T.P., VanBuskirk, A., Goldberg, E. and Pierce, S.K. (1992) Design and Immunological Properties of Topographic Immunogenic Determinants of a Protein Antigen (LDH-C4) as Vaccines. J. Biol. Chem., 267, 6338-6346.
Kaumaya, P.T.P., Seo, Y.H., Kobs, S., Ngua, l., Sheridan, J. and Stevens, V. (1993) Peptide vaccines incorporating a “promiscuous” T cell epitope bypass certain haplotype restricted immune responses and provide broad spectrum immunogenicity. J. Molec. Recog. 6, 81-94.
Kobs-Conrad, S., Lee, H., DiGeorge, A.M. and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (1993) Engineered Topographic Determinants with ab, bab, and baba Topologies show High Affinity Binding to Native Protein Antigen LDH-C4. J. Biol. Chem., 268, 25285-25295.
Lairmore, M.D., DiGeorge, A.M., Conrad, S.F., Trevino, A. and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (1995) HTLV-I Peptides Constructs incorporating Promiscuous T cell epitopes overcome genetic restriction, elicit neutralizing antibodies and T cell help. J. Virol.,69 (10),6077-6089
Kaumaya, P.T.P. (1996) Synthetic Peptide Vaccines: Dream or Reality. In Peptides in Immunology (Schneider, C.H., Ed.) Wiley and Sons, Ltd., pp. 117-148
Bakaletz, L. O., Leake, E. R., Billy, J. M., and Kaumaya, P. T. P. (1997) Relative Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Two Synthetic Chimeric Peptides of Fimbrin as Vaccinogens against Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae in the Chinchilla. Vaccine 15 (9), 955-961.
Dakappagari, N.K., Douglas, D.B., Triozzi, P.L., Stevens, V.C., and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (2000) Prevention of Mammary Tumors with a Chimeric HER-2 B-cell Epitope Peptide Vaccine. Cancer Research 60, 3782-3789
Frangione, M., Albretch, B., Dakappagari, N., Rose, T., Brooks, C.L., Schwendeman, S.P., Lairmore, M.D., and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (2001) Enhanced Immunogenicity of a Conformational Epitope of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 using a Novel Chimeric Peptide. Vaccine 19, 1068-1081
Frangione-Beebe, M., Rose, T., Kaumaya, P.T.P., and Schwendeman, S.P. (2001) Microencapsulation of a Synthetic Peptide for HTLV-1 in Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactise-co-glycolide) Microspheres using a Novel Encapsulation Technique. J. of Microencapsulation 18 (5), 663-677
Srinivasan, M., Wardrop, R.M., Whitacre, C., and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (2001) A Retro-Inverso Peptide Mimic of CD28 Encompassing the MYPPPY Motif Adopts a Polyproline Type II Helix and Inhibits Encaphalitogenic T cell in Vitro. J. Immunol 167:578-585
Roshni Sundaram, Christopher M Walker, and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2001) Evaluation of HTLV-1 Cytotoxic T-cell Epitopes in HLA-A2.1 Transgenic Mice. In Peptides: The Wave of the Future (Eds Houghten R.A and Lebl, M) Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Press
Pravin T.P. Kaumaya, John Pyles and Naveen Dakappagari. (2001) A combination of HER-2 peptide epitope vaccines mediate superior biological effects. In Peptides: The Wave of the Future (Eds Houghten R.A and Lebl, M) Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Press
Sundaram, R., Dakappagari., and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2002) Synthetic Peptides as Cancer Vaccine. Bioplolymers 66 (3),200-216
Sundaram, R, Yiping Sun, C.Walker, F.A.Lemonnier, S.Jacobson, and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2003) A Novel HTLV-1 Epitope CTL Peptide Construct Elicits Robust Cellular Immune Responses in HLA-A*0201 Transgenic ß2 M, Db Double Knockout Mice. Vaccine 21, 2767-2781
Dakappagari, N., Parihar,R., J.Pyles, W.E. Carson, and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2003) A Chimeric Multi HER-2 B cell epitope Peptide Vaccine mediates Superior Anti-tumor Responses. J. Immunol. 170:4242-4253
Utano Tomaru, Yoshihisa Yamano, Masahiro Nagai, Dragan Maric, Pravin T.P. Kaumaya, William Biddison, and Steven Jacobson. (2003) Acquisition of Peptide/HLA-GFP Complexes by Virus-Specific T Cells Differentiate Stages of T Cell Maturation Associated with The Outcome of Chronic Viral Infections. Nature Medicine 9(4), 469-475.
Sundaram, R., Beebe, M., and Kaumaya, P.T.P. (2004) Structural and Immunogenicity analysis of chimeric B-cell epitope constructs derived from gp46 and gp21 subunits of the env glycoproteins of HTLV-1. J. Peptide Res., 63, 132-140
Roshni Sundaram, Marcus P. Lynch , Sharad V. Rawale, Yiping Sun, Merdud Kazanji and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2004) Denovo Design of Peptide Immunogens that Mimic the Coiled Coil Region of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type-1 gp21 Transmembrane Subunit for Induction of Native Protein Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies. J. Biol Chem., April 1, Epub ahead of Print); 279 (23) 24141-24151
Roshni Sundaram, Sharad Rawale , Naveen Dakappagari, Donn Young, Christopher M Walker, Francois Lemonnier, Steven Jacobson and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya. (2004) Protective Efiicacy of Multiepitope HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL Peptide construct against challenge with HTLV-1 TAX recombinant vaccinia virus. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37 (3), 1329-1339
Roshni Sundaram, Melanie Beebe and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya (2004) Structural and Immunogenicity analysis of Chimeric B-cell epitope constructs derived from the gp46 and gp21 subunits of the env proteins of HTLV-1. J. Peptide Res. 63, 1-9
Naveen K. Dakappagari, Kenneth D. Lute, Sharad Rawale, Joan T. Steele, Stephanie D. Allen, Gary Phillips, R. Todd Reilly, and Pravin T.P. Kaumaya (2005) Conformational HER-2/neu B-Cell Epitope Peptide Vaccine Designed to Incorporate Two Native Disulfide Bonds Enhances Tumor Cell Binding and Antitumor Activities. J.Biol Chem (manuscript in press)